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Genes Dev. 1997 Oct 15;11(20):2729-40.

Chip, a widely expressed chromosomal protein required for segmentation and activity of a remote wing margin enhancer in Drosophila.

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1
Molecular Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 USA.

Abstract

The mechanisms allowing remote enhancers to regulate promoters several kilobase pairs away are unknown but are blocked by the Drosophila suppressor of Hairy-wing protein (Suhw) that binds to gypsy retrovirus insertions between enhancers and promoters. Suhw bound to a gypsy insertion in the cut gene also appears to act interchromosomally to antagonize enhancer-promoter interactions on the homologous chromosome when activity of the Chip gene is reduced. This implicates Chip in enhancer-promoter communication. We cloned Chip and find that it encodes a homolog of the recently discovered mouse Nli/Ldb1/Clim-2 and Xenopus Xldb1 proteins that bind nuclear LIM domain proteins. Chip protein interacts with the LIM domains in the Apterous homeodomain protein, and Chip interacts genetically with apterous, showing that these interactions are important for Apterous function in vivo. Importantly, Chip also appears to have broad functions beyond interactions with LIM domain proteins. Chip is present in all nuclei examined and at numerous sites along the salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Embryos without Chip activity lack segments and show abnormal gap and pair-rule gene expression, although no LIM domain proteins are known to regulate segmentation. We conclude that Chip is a ubiquitous chromosomal factor required for normal expression of diverse genes at many stages of development. We suggest that Chip cooperates with different LIM domain proteins and other factors to structurally support remote enhancer-promoter interactions.

PMID:
9334334
PMCID:
PMC316608
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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