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J Bone Miner Res. 1997 Oct;12(10):1552-9.

The 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1-alpha-hydroxylase gene maps to the pseudovitamin D-deficiency rickets (PDDR) disease locus.

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Shriners Hospital, and Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.


Pseudovitamin D-deficiency rickets (PDDR) is an autosomal recessive disorder that may be due to impaired activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase, a renal cytochrome P450 enzyme (P450[1alpha]) of the vitamin D pathway. The disease locus for PDDR has been mapped by linkage analysis to 12q13-q14, but the molecular defect underlying the enzyme dysfunction has remained elusive due to the lack of sequence information for the P450(1alpha) gene (hereafter referred to as 1alpha-OHase). We have used a probe derived from the rat 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (CYP24; 24-OHase) sequence to identify and clone the 1alpha-OHase cDNA. The full-length 1alpha-OHase clone of 2.4 kb codes for a protein of predicted Mr 55 kDa. Functional activity of the cloned sequence was assessed using transient transfection, and the production of authentic 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha,25(OH)2D3] was confirmed using high performance liquid chromatography fractionation and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The expression of the gene was analyzed in vitamin D-replete animals; treatment with 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 reduced 1alpha-OHase transcript levels by 70%, while administration of parathyroid hormone led to a 2-fold increase in the expression of the gene, thus confirming the hormonal regulation previously described using biochemical methods. The rat cDNA was used to obtain a human genomic clone. Interestingly, the human 1alpha-OHase gene mapped to 12q13.1-q13.3, providing strong evidence that a mutation in the 1alpha-OHase gene is responsible for the PDDR phenotype. The availability of a cloned sequence for 1alpha-OHase generates novel tools for the study of the molecular etiology of PDDR, and will allow the investigation of other disturbances of vitamin D metabolism.

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