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J Dent Res. 1997 Oct;76(10):1667-74.

Association between marginal bone loss around osseointegrated mandibular implants and smoking habits: a 10-year follow-up study.

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Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Odontology, Göteborg University, Sweden.


While many factors are conceivable, occlusal loading and plaque-induced inflammation are frequently stated as the most important ones negatively affecting the prognosis of oral implants. Currently, little is known about the relative importance of such factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of smoking and other possibly relevant factors on bone loss around mandibular implants. The participants were 45 edentulous patients, 21 smokers and 24 non-smokers, who were followed for 10-year period after treatment with a fixed implant-supported prosthesis in the mandible. The peri-implant bone level was measured on intraoral radiographs, information about smoking habits was based on a careful interview, and oral hygiene was evaluated from clinical registration of plaque accumulation. Besides standard statistical methods, multiple linear regression models were constructed for estimation of the relative influence of some factors on peri-implant bone loss. The long-term results of the implant treatment were good, and only three implants (1%) were lost. The mean marginal bone loss around the mandibular implants was very small, about 1 mm for the entire 10-year period. It was greater in smokers than in non-smokers and correlated to the amount of cigarette consumption. Smokers with poor oral hygiene showed greater marginal bone loss around the mandibular implants than those with good oral hygiene. Oral hygiene did not significantly affect bone loss in non-smokers. Multivariate analyses showed that smoking was the most important factor among those analyzed for association with peri-implant bone loss. The separate models for smokers and non-smokers revealed that oral hygiene had a greater impact on peri-implant bone loss among smokers than among non-smokers. This study showed that smoking was the most important factor affecting the rate of peri-implant bone loss, and that oral hygiene also had an influence, especially in smokers, while other factors, e.g., those associated with occlusal loading, were of minor importance. These results indicate that smoking habits should be included in analyses of implant survival and peri-implant bone loss.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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