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Am J Physiol. 1997 Sep;273(3 Pt 2):R1017-23.

A novel submandibular gland peptide protects against endotoxic and anaphylactic shock.

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Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.


Submandibular glands release peptides and proteins that, through exocrine and endocrine actions, facilitate tissue repair in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and more distal sites such as liver. It has been shown that salivary gland factors also modulate inflammatory responses, because we found that removal of the submandibular glands increases the hypotensive responses to endotoxin. From this observation we proposed that these glands contain a factor that regulates cardiovascular response to shock. With the use of classical peptide isolation procedures, a heptapeptide (TDIFEGG) called submandibular gland peptide T was identified in rat submandibular glands. A synthetic form of this peptide reduced endotoxic shock in sialadenectomized rats by 50% at doses as low as 1 microgram/kg and prevented allergen-induced hypotension by 90% in rats with intact salivary glands at a dose of 100 micrograms/kg. This novel peptide is probably generated from a prohormone, submandibular gland rat 1 protein, a product of the VCSA1 gene. These data indicate that submandibular glands participate in the regulation of systemic homeostasis.

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