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J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Oct;35(10):2654-6.

Fatal Penicillium citrinum pneumonia with pericarditis in a patient with acute leukemia.

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Department of Clinical Oncology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories.


We report here a case of fatal Penicillium citrinum infection. The patient, who suffered from acute myeloid leukemia, developed signs and symptoms typical of fungal pneumonia and pericardial tamponade after undergoing standard induction chemotherapy. Despite attaining complete remission of her leukemia, the patient succumbed 8 weeks after presentation. At autopsy, multiple nodular cavitary pulmonary lesions with invasion by fungal hyphae were found. Pericardial and lung tissue obtained at autopsy grew P. citrinum, a fungus ubiquitous in the environment but seldom reported as a pathogen. The microbiological findings were consistent with the histopathological features and confirmed this as a case of true P. citrinum infection causing fatal pulmonary and pericardial complications in an immunocompromised host.

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