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Psychosom Med. 1997 Sep-Oct;59(5):477-80.

Age, testosterone, and behavior among female prison inmates.

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Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta 30303, USA.



The objective of the study was to determine how testosterone levels, both alone and interacting with age, were associated with criminal behavior and institutional behavior among female prison inmates.


Subjects were 87 female inmates in a maximum security state prison. Criminal behavior was scored from court records. Institutional behavior was scored from prison records and interviews with staff members. Testoster-one levels were scored from radioimmunoassay of saliva samples.


Product-moment correlations revealed first-order relationships among age, testosterone, criminal behavior, and institutional behavior. Structural equation analysis suggested a causal model in which age leads to lower testosterone, which in turn leads to less violent crime and less aggressive dominance in prison.


Testosterone is related to criminal violence and aggressive dominance in prison among women, as has been reported among men. Changes in these behaviors with age are in part explained by a decline in testosterone levels.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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