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Am J Public Health. 1997 Sep;87(9):1415-22.

Can dietary interventions change diet and cardiovascular risk factors? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, England.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This study evaluated the effectiveness of dietary advice in primary prevention of chronic disease.

METHODS:

A meta-analysis was conducted of 17 randomized controlled trials of dietary behavior interventions of at least 3 months' duration. Results were analyzed as changes in reported dietary fat intakes and biomedical measures (serum cholesterol, urinary sodium, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) in the intervention group minus changes in the control group at 3 to 6 months and 9 to 18 months of follow-up.

RESULTS:

After 3 to 6 months, mean net changes in each of the five outcomes favored intervention. For dietary fat as a percentage of food energy, the change was -2.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.9%, -1.1%). Mean net changes over 9 to 18 months were as follows: serum cholesterol, -0.22 (95% CI = -0.39, -0.05) mmol/L; urinary sodium, -45.0 (95% CI = -57.1, -32.8) mmol/24 hours; systolic blood pressure, -1.9 (95% CI = -3.0, 0.8) mm Hg; and diastolic blood pressure, -1.2 (95% CI = -2.6, 0.2) mm Hg.

CONCLUSIONS:

Individual dietary interventions in primary prevention can achieve modest improvements in diet and cardiovascular disease risk status that are maintained for 9 to 18 months.

Comment in

  • ACP J Club. 1998 Mar-Apr;128(2):37.
PMID:
9314790
PMCID:
PMC1380963
DOI:
10.2105/ajph.87.9.1415
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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