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EMBO J. 1997 Aug 15;16(16):4924-37.

A role for the Pkc1 MAP kinase pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in bud emergence and identification of a putative upstream regulator.

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Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0448, USA.


The protein kinase C of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pkc1, regulates a MAP kinase, Mpk1, whose activity is stimulated at the G1-S transition of the cell cycle and by perturbations to the cell surface, e.g. induced by heat shock. The activity of the Pkc1 pathway is partially dependent on Cdc28 activity. Swi4 activates transcription of many genes at the G1-S transition, including CLN1 and CLN2. We find that swi4 mutants are defective specifically in bud emergence. The growth and budding defects of swi4 mutants are suppressed by overexpression of PKC1. This suppression requires CLN1 and CLN2. Inhibition of the Pkc1 pathway exacerbates the growth and bud emergence defects of swi4 mutants. We find that another dose-dependent suppressor of swi4 mutants, the novel gene HCS77, encodes a putative integral membrane protein. Hcs77 may regulate the Pkc1 pathway; hcs77 mutants exhibit phenotypes like those of mpk1 mutants, are partially suppressed by overexpression of PKC1 and are defective in heat shock induction of Mpk1 activity. We propose that the Pkc1 pathway promotes bud emergence and organized surface growth and is activated by Cdc28-Cln1/Cln2 at the G1-S transition and by Hcs77 upon heat shock. Hcs77 may monitor the state of the cell surface.

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