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Eur J Oral Sci. 1997 Aug;105(4):287-93.

Breath odor: etiopathogenesis, assessment and management.

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Eastman Dental Institute for Oral Health Care Sciences, University of London, UK.


Oral malodor is a significant social disability which usually has a local cause, particularly arising from the oral flora. Malodor may arise from the lingual or periodontal flora, gram-negative anaerobes being the main organisms capable of releasing sulphur compounds from the putrefaction of debris and other material. Volatile sulphur compounds, cadaverine and other substances appear responsible for much of the malodor. Systemic disease may underlie some cases of oral malodor. The objective assessment of malodor is still best performed by the human sense of smell (organoleptic method) but more quantifiable measures are being developed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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