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FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1997 Sep 1;154(1):65-72.

Expression and analysis of coronafacate ligase, a thermoregulated gene required for production of the phytotoxin coronatine in Pseudomonas syringae.

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Department of Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater 74078-3032, USA.


Coronafacic acid, the polyketide component of the phytotoxin coronatine, is activated and coupled to coronamic acid via amide bond formation, a biosynthetic step presumably catalyzed by the coronafacate ligase (cfl) gene product. In the present study, cfl was fused to the carboxy terminus of malE, which encodes the maltose-binding protein (MBP), and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Immunoblot analysis indicated that Cfl contained an ATP-binding region, a motif conserved in enzymes which activate their substrates by adenylation. MBP-Cfl was overproduced and purified from Pseudomonas syringae and the protein fusion was used to generate antisera. Anti-MBP-Cfl antibodies and a transcriptional fusion of the cfl promoter to a promoterless glucuronidase gene were used to follow the temporal expression of coronafacate ligase. The results indicated that transcription of cfl is temperature-sensitive. Furthermore, a nonpolar mutation in cfl suggested that the gene may have a role in coronafacic acid biosynthesis.

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