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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 16;94(19):10138-43.

Cloning and characterization of the mouse vitamin D receptor promoter.

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Department of Biochemistry, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.


The gene encoding the mouse vitamin D receptor has been cloned. A new exon 1 has been found that changes the numbering established for the human VDR gene. Exons 2 and 3 in the human VDR gene (coding for the zinc fingers 1 and 2, respectively) are named exons 3 and 4 in the mouse vitamin D receptor. The 1.5-kb 5'-flanking region of the new exon 1 was analyzed and revealed the presence of putative cis-acting elements. Despite the absence of a TATA box, this 5'-flanking region contains several characteristics of a GC-rich promoter including four Sp1 sites present in tandem and two CCAAT boxes. Interestingly, the Sp1 site that is the most proximal to the new exon 1 overlaps a perfect site for Krox-20/24. Krox-20 is a transcription factor involved in brain development, and also in bone remodeling. In luciferase reporter gene expression assays, we showed that sequences from this 5'-flanking region elicit high transactivation activity. Furthermore, in the NIH 3T3 cell line, a 3- to 5-fold increase in response to forskolin treatment (an activator of adenylate cyclase and in turn of protein kinase A pathway) was observed.

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