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J Biol Chem. 1997 Sep 5;272(36):22438-46.

Sites of reaction of the gastric H,K-ATPase with extracytoplasmic thiol reagents.

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Department of Physiology and Medicine, UCLA and Wadsworth Veterans Administration Hospital, Los Angeles, California 90073, USA.


The vesicular gastric H,K-ATPase catalyzes an electroneutral H for K exchange allowing acidification of the intravesicular space. There is a total of 28 cysteines present in the alpha subunit of the gastric H,K-ATPase, of which 10 are found in the predicted transmembrane segments and their connecting loop, and 9 are present in the beta subunit, of which 6 are disulfide-linked. To determine which of these was accessible to extracytoplasmic attack, the enzyme was inhibited by four different substituted 2-pyridylmethylsulfinyl benzimidazoles, 5-methoxy-2-[(4-methoxy-3, 5-dimethyl-2-pyridyl)methylsulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole (omeprazole), 2-[(4-trifluoroethoxy-3-methyl-2-pyridyl)methylsulfinyl]-1H-ben zimida zole (lansoprazole), 5-difluoromethoxy-2-[3, 4-methoxy-2-pyridyl)methylsulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole (pantoprazole), and 2-[(4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methyl)-2-pyridyl)methylsulfinyl]-1H-++ +benzi midazole (rabeprazole), under acid transporting conditions. All of these compounds are weak bases that accumulate in the acidic space generated by the pump and undergo an acid catalyzed rearrangement to a cationic sulfenamide, which forms disulfides with accessible cysteines. The relative rates of acid activation of these compounds corresponded to the relative rates of inhibition of ATPase activity and acid transport. Fragmentation of the enzyme by trypsin followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that omeprazole bound covalently to one of the two cysteines in the domains containing the fifth and sixth transmembrane segments and their extracytoplasmic loop and to cysteine 892 in the loop between the seventh and eighth transmembrane segments, but inhibition correlated with the reaction with cysteines in the fifth and sixth domain. Lansoprazole bound to the cysteines in these two domains as well as to cysteine 321 toward the extracytoplasmic end of the third transmembrane segments. Pantoprazole bound only to either cysteine 813 or 822 in the fifth and sixth transmembrane region. The inhibition of Rabeprazole correlated also with its binding to this part of the protein, but this compound continued to bind after full inhibition, eventually binding also to cysteines 321 and 892. No binding was found to any of the cysteines in the seventh to tenth transmembrane segments. Thermolysin digestion of the isolated omeprazole-labeled fifth and sixth transmembrane pair showed that cysteine 813 was the site of labeling. It is concluded that binding of these sided reagents to cysteine 813 in the loop between transmembrane (TM)5 and TM6 is sufficient for inhibition of ATPase activity and acid transport by the gastric acid pump. Of the 10 cysteines present in the membrane and extracytoplasmic domain, only three are exposed sufficiently to allow reactivity with these cationic thiol reagents. The binding to cysteine 813 defines the location of the extracytoplasmic loop between TM5 and TM6 and places the carboxylic acids 820 and 824 conserved between the gastric H,K- and the Na,K-ATPases in TM6, consistent with their assumed role in cation binding.

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