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Am J Med. 1997 Aug;103(2):106-13.

The independent role of cytomegalovirus as a risk factor for invasive fungal disease in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Boston Center for Liver Transplantation CMVIG-Study Group. Cytogam, MedImmune, Inc. Gaithersburg, Maryland.

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Department of Medicine, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.



To assess impact of cytomegalovirus (CMV) donor-recipient serostatus, infection, or disease on development of invasive fungal infection in orthotopic liver transplant recipients.


An analysis of prospectively collected data in 146 liver transplant recipients (intention to treat cohort) from 4 tertiary care, university-affiliated transplant centers in Boston (Boston Center for Liver Transplantation). Patients were observed for 1 year after transplantation for the development of CMV infection, CMV disease, CMV pneumonia, as well as for the development of opportunistic fungal infections, graft survival, and mortality. Weekly cultures were taken of urine and throat and every other week of buffy coat for CMV for 2 months, then monthly for 6 months, at 1 year, and at the time of any clinical illness. Pre- and posttransplant variables including CMV-serostatus of donor and recipient, fungal isolation from sterile body sites, fungemia, bacteremia, antibiotic use, immunosuppression, treatment for rejection, and volumes of blood products were measured.


Survival analysis demonstrated that 36% of patients with CMV disease developed invasive fungal disease within the first year post-transplant compared with 8% of those without CMV disease (P < 0.0001). One-year mortality in patients with invasive fungal disease was 15 of 22 (68%) compared with 23 of 124 (19%) in those without invasive fungal disease (P < 0.001). A multivariable, time-dependent analysis demonstrated that being a CMV-seronegative recipient of a CMV-seropositive donor organ (P < 0.001), having bacteremia (P = 0.001), UNOS (United Network for Organ Sharing) status 4 (need for life support measures) at transplant (P = 0.002), and volume of platelets (P = 0.002) were independently associated with invasive fungal disease. Restriction of cases of invasive fungal disease to those that occurred more than 2 weeks after transplant demonstrated an association with CMV disease (P = 0.003), bacteremia (P = 0.003), need for life support (P = 0.03), and volume of blood products transfused (P = 0.02).


CMV disease or being a CMV-seronegative recipient of a CMV-seropositive donor organ is an important predictor for invasive fungal disease following orthotopic liver transplantation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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