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Pharm World Sci. 1997 Jun;19(3):133-41.

The treatment of staphylococcal infections with special reference to pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacoeconomic considerations.

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  • 1Maasland Ziekenhuis, Dept. of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Sittard, The Netherlands.


The choice of antibiotics for the treatment of staphylococcal infections depends to a high degree on the susceptibility patterns in the hospital in question. These may be highly variable and considerable differences between countries and hospitals exist. The insight into the pharmacodynamic aspects of antimicrobial agents has increased considerably in the last 5 years, resulting in new treatments, such as once daily administration of aminoglycosides and continuous infusion of betalactam antibiotics. The antibiotic policy in Dutch hospitals for the treatment of staphylococcal infections is discussed. In most Western countries with a relatively low incidence of MRSA, penicillin-derivatives, such as flucloxacillin (or cloxacillin, methicillin and nafcillin) will be the drug of choice, because of their good in-vitro activity, low toxicity, good clinical efficacy and relatively low cost. If the incidence of MRSA increases, drugs such as the glycopeptides will be of more importance. This will of course have a clear economic impact, as both vancomycin and teicoplanin are considerably more expensive than agents such as flucloxacillin and oral treatment is not possible. Pharmacoeconomic aspects also play a role. As a rule, intravenous antimicrobial agents are considerably more expensive than the oral formulations. Before oral administration can be recommended, a reliable oral absorption, also in seriously ill patients, must have been demonstrated. Other aspects that influence the cost of therapy are hospital stay and the possibility of outpatient treatment.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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