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J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997 Aug;65(4):703-7.

Brief treatment of mild-to-moderate child depression using primary and secondary control enhancement training.

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Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) 90095-1563, USA.


Elementary school children with mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a control group or an 8-session Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training program. The program focused on (a) primary control (changing objective conditions to fit one's wishes; e.g., through activity selection and goal attainment) and (b) secondary control (changing oneself to buffer the impact of objective conditions; e.g., altering depressogenic thinking, practicing mood-enhancing cognitions). At immediate posttreatment and 9-month follow-up, the treatment group showed greater reductions than the control group in depressive symptomatology on the Children's Depression Inventory and the Revised Children's Depression Rating Scale, and treated children, more than controls, shifted from above to within the normal range on both measures. Future research is needed to test treatment effects with severely depressed youths.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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