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Phys Med Biol. 1997 Jul;42(7):1245-62.

Anisotropy of human muscle via non-invasive impedance measurements.

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Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Combining non-invasive 50 kHz impedance measurements with a mathematical model for the underlying structure, we obtain in vivo values for the transverse and longitudinal conductivities of the muscles of the human thigh and for the (isotropic) conductivity of the covering skin-fat layer. Results for a healthy male subject are in acceptably good agreement with those obtained elsewhere on surgically exposed or freshly excised animal tissue and with 'global' measurements on humans. Also, measurements using rotatable probes reveal orientations of underlying muscle fibres via minima in resistance versus angle curves. The results suggest potentially useful methods for studying muscle properties in clinical and physiological research.

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