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J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1997 Jun;13(2):171-83.

Pesticide avoidance behavior in Anopheles albimanus, a malaria vector in the Americas.

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Kasetsart University, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Nakhon Prathom, Thailand.


The behavioral responses of 4 populations of Anopheles albimanus females to DDT, permethrin, and deltamethrin were characterized in excito-repellency tests. One test population (ST) from El Salvador has been maintained as a colony for 20 years. A second population (ES) from Guatemala was colonized in 1992. Third and fourth populations consisted of field-caught specimens from Toledo District (TO) of southern Belize in 1994 and Corozal District (CO) of northern Belize, respectively. Females of ES, TO, and CO populations rapidly escaped from direct contact with treated surfaces for each of the 3 insecticides. Similarities in escape responses of insecticide-resistant (ES) versus insecticide-susceptible populations (TO, CO) suggest that there is no relationship between physiological and behavioral responses of An. albimanus populations to DDT, permethrin, and deltamethrin. Females from all but the ST colony escaped in greater numbers from chambers without direct contact with treated surfaces than from control chambers (P < 0.05). Few females from the ST colony escaped from test chambers, regardless of which insecticide was used or whether contact was allowed, indicating that the ST colony has lost its capability to respond to insecticides. Repellent responses were significant; but they were not pronounced in 30-min exposures, and they were very pronounced in 4-h exposures. We conclude that irritant and repellent responses of malaria vectors to insecticides are important components of malaria control operations.

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