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J Magn Reson. 1997 Mar;125(1):92-101.

A single-scan imaging technique for measurement of the relative concentrations of fat and water protons and their transverse relaxation times.

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Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia 19104, USA.


A two-component chemical-shift-imaging technique is described from which fat and water images can be obtained in a single scan and in the presence of an inhomogeneous field. In addition, the method provides transverse relaxation rates R2 and R2' separately for each of the spectral components. The method is a combination and extension of the GESFIDE [gradient echo sampling of FID and echo, J. Ma and F. W. Wehrli, J. Magn. Reson. B 111, 61 (1996)] and the multipoint Dixon techniques. It is based on sampling the descending and ascending portions of a Hahn spin echo with a train of gradient echoes which are spaced at one-half of the chemical-shift modulation period. Processing of the complex echo data, involving an automated phase unwrapping algorithm, affords relative amplitudes and transverse relaxation rates of the two spectral components. An additional benefit of the method is its superior signal-to-noise ratio resulting from echo summation. Applications targeted and illustrated involve MRI osteodensitometry of trabecular bone in the presence of varying fractions of hematopoietic and fatty bone marrow.

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