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J Biol Chem. 1997 Aug 8;272(32):19976-81.

A covalent enzyme-substrate adduct in a mutant hen egg white lysozyme (D52E).

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Central Laboratories for Key Technology, Kirin Brewery Co. Ltd., 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236 Japan.


A mutant hen egg white lysozyme, D52E, was designed to correspond to the structure of the mutant T4 lysozyme T26E (Kuroki, R., Weaver, L. H., and Matthews B. W. (1993) Science 262, 2030-2033) to investigate the role of the catalytic residue on the alpha-side of the saccharide in these enzymes. The D52E mutant forms a covalent enzyme-substrate adduct, which was detected by electron ion spray mass spectrometry. X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the covalent adduct was formed between Glu-52 and the C-1 carbon of the N-acetylglucosamine residue in subsite D of the saccharide binding site. It suggests that the catalytic mechanism of D52E mutant lysozyme proceeds through a covalent enzyme-substrate intermediate indicating a different catalytic mechanism from the wild type hen egg white lysozyme. It was confirmed that the substitution of Asp-52 with Glu is structurally and functionally equivalent to the substitution of Thr-26 with Glu in T4 lysozyme. Although the position of the catalytic residue on the beta-side of the saccharide is quite conserved among hen egg white lysozyme, goose egg white lysozyme, and T4 phage lysozyme, the adaptability of the side chain on the alpha-side of the saccharide is considered to be responsible for the functional variation in their glycosidase and transglycosidase activities.

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