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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 May 30;820:248-70; discussion 271.

Advances in optical imaging of biomedical media.

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New York State Center for Advanced Technology for Ultrafast Photonic Materials and Applications, Physics Department, City College of the City University of New York, New York 10031, USA.


In this article, we have presented an overview of fundamental issues involved in mediphotonic imaging, and reviewed some of the emerging techniques for early-light transillumination imaging of body organs. The results on human breast tissues presented here, together with the data accumulated and advances made by researchers around the globe, not only demonstrate the feasibility of optical imaging as a clinical procedure but indicate a road map to reach that goal. The milestones include evaluation of relative merits of available approaches for a particular imaging application; selection of diagnostic wavelengths, as well as sources to generate and detectors to monitor light at those wavelengths; accumulation of data on optical, spectroscopic, and transport properties of tissues and organs; in vivo testing; prototype instrumentation development; clinical trials; governmental approval; cost analysis and marketing; and finally system improvement based on feedback from end users. A new era of optical clinical imaging is at the door.

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