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J Surg Res. 1997 May;69(2):283-7.

Nitric oxide contributes to adriamycin's antitumor effect.

Author information

1
Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610, USA.

Abstract

Recently, several antitumor drugs have been shown to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production.

PURPOSE:

To determine if adriamycin induces NO production in breast cancer cells in vitro and whether NO contributes to adriamycin's antitumor effect in vivo.

METHODS:

Murine breast cancer cells (EMT-6) were incubated with adriamycin (ADRIA, 0, 10, 100, 1000 microM) in the presence or absence of the NO synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG, 1 mM). Twenty-four hours later nitrite accumulation (Greiss reagent) and cell viability (MTT assay) were assessed. Supernatants from adriamycin-stimulated cells were also analyzed at 6, 8, and 24 hr for TNF, IL-1, and IFN gamma (ELISA). For in vivo experiments, 10(5) EMT-6 cells were injected into the flank of BALB/c mice (n = 20) and 1 hr later mice received one of four treatments: (1) saline, (2) ADRIA (10 mg/kg ip), (3) AG (100 mg/kg sc BID), or (4) ADRIA (10 mg/kg ip) and AG (100 mg/kg sc BID). Two weeks later tumor size was measured and in situ tumor cell apoptosis was determined by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry.

RESULTS:

Adriamycin was cytotoxic to EMT-6 cells with 100 microM resulting in nearly 100% killing (P < 0.01). Adriamycin also stimulated nitrite accumulation with 100 microM producing 6.5 +/- 0.26 microM nitrite (P < 0.001). AG blocked adriamycin-stimulated nitrite accumulation (P < 0.05), but did not inhibit cytotoxicity in vitro. In vivo, adriamycin inhibited tumor size by nearly 400% (P < 0.001), while AG attenuated adriamycin's effect on tumor growth (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the detection of apoptotic tumor cells between the adriamycin and adriamycin and AG groups as determined by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggest that adriamycin stimulated NO production in EMT-6 cells, but adriamycin's cytotoxicity in vitro was NO-independent. In vivo, adriamycin inhibited tumorigenesis partially via an NO-dependent, nonapoptotic mechanism.

PMID:
9224394
DOI:
10.1006/jsre.1997.5015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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