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Int J Epidemiol. 1997 Jun;26(3):571-4.

Maternal smoking and urinary organ malformations.

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  • 1Tornblad Institute, Lund, Sweden.



In order to investigate whether an earlier reported association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and urinary organ malformations could be confirmed, a study was made using Swedish health registries.


Infants with kidney malformations (n = 483) and infants with other urinary organ malformations with no primary involvement of the kidney(s) (n = 719) were selected among 1117021 infants born 1983-1993 with known smoking exposure in early pregnancy.


A moderate statistically significant association between maternal smoking and kidney malformations was found (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.00-1.48). With the exception of genetic renal polycystic disease, the main subgroups of kidney malformations showed similar OR. For other urinary organ malformations, no association with smoking could be detected (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.79-1.11).


This study supports an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and kidney malformations. No obvious confounders were detected but further work is needed before a causal inference can be made.

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