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J Med Entomol. 1997 Jul;34(4):396-403.

Comparison of behavior and vector efficiency of Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis (Diptera:Culicidae) in Barkedji, a Sahelian area of Senegal.

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Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en coopération (ORSTOM), Institut Pasteur, Dakar, Sénégal.


The ecology, population dynamics, and malaria vector efficiency of Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis were studied for 2 yr in a Sahelian village of Senegal. Anophelines were captured at human bait and resting indoors by pyrethrum spray. Mosquitoes belonging to the An. gambiae complex were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Of 26,973 females, An. arabiensis represented 79% of the mosquitoes captured and remained in the study area longer than An. gambiae after the rains terminated. There were no differences in nocturnal biting cycles or endophagous rates between An. gambiae and An. arabiensis. Based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test of bloodmeals, the anthropophilic rate of these 2 vectors were both approximately 60%, when comparisons were made during the same period. Overall, 18% of the resting females had patent mixed bloodmeals, mainly human-bovine. The parity rates of An. gambiae and An. arabiensis varied temporally. Despite similar behavior, the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) rates were different between An. gambiae (4.1%) and An. arabiensis (1.3%). P. malariae and P. ovale only represented 4% of the total Plasmodium identified in mosquitoes. Transmission was seasonal, occurring mainly during 4 mo. The CSP entomological inoculation rates were 128 bites per human per year for the 1st yr and 100 for the 2nd yr. Because of the combination of a high human biting rate and a low CSP rate, An. arabiensis accounted for 63% of transmission. Possible origin of differences in CSP rate between An. gambiae and An. arabiensis is discussed in relation to the parity rate, blood feeding frequency, and the hypothesis of genetic factors.

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