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Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 1997 Jul;6(3):639-59.

Prognostic factors and management of carcinomas of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts.

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Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213-2582, USA.


Cancers of the biliary tract are uncommon but aggressive malignancies that pose difficult problems in diagnosis and management. Long-term survival with these cancers is limited by their propensity for local invasion, so that pathologic stage becomes a major prognostic factor, and by their ability to cause biliary obstruction and sepsis and interfere with hepatic function. In selected patients, surgical resection offers the possibility of cure, but effective palliation is often the principal goal of treatment. Radiologic and endoscopic modalities thus often play a major role in patient management.

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