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Soc Gen Physiol Ser. 1997;52:227-39.

Dissection of protein kinase and phosphatase targeting interactions.

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  • 1Vollum Institute, Portland, Oregon 97201-3098, USA.


Protein phosphorylation is a primary means of mediating signal transduction events that control cellular processes. Accordingly, the activities of protein kinases and phosphatases are highly regulated. One level of regulation is that the subcellular distribution of several kinases and phosphatases is restricted by association with targeting proteins or subunits. This mechanism promotes rapid and preferential modulation of specific targets within a defined microenvironment in response to diffusible second messengers. The type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is targeted by association of its regulatory subunit (RII) with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). To date, 36 unique AKAPs have been identified. Each of these proteins contains a conserved amphipathic helix responsible for AKAP association with cellular structures. Disruption of PKA/AKAP interaction with peptides patterned after the amphipathic helix region blocks certain cAMP responses, including the modulation of glutamate receptor ion-channel activity in neurons and transcription of cAMP-responsive genes. Yeast two-hybrid screening methods have identified neuronal specific AKAP79-binding proteins including the beta isoform of the phosphatase 2B, calcineurin. Biochemical and immunological studies have confirmed the two-hybrid results and identified additional members of this multienzyme signaling complex, including certain protein kinase C isoforms. These findings are consistent with colocalization of CaN, PKC, and type II PKA by AKAP79 and suggest a novel model for reversible phosphorylation in which the opposing kinase and phosphatase actions are colocalized in a signal transduction complex by association with a common anchor protein.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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