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J Infect Dis. 1997 Feb;175 Suppl 1:S228-34.

Humoral and mucosal immunity in infants induced by three sequential inactivated poliovirus vaccine-live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine immunization schedules. Baltimore Area Polio Vaccine Study Group.

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Department of Pediatrics, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA.


The relative immunity induced by sequential administration of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) produced in human diploid cells and live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was evaluated by randomization of 510 infants to receive IPV and OPV sequentially according to one of three experimental schedules, IPV only, or OPV only. The antibody response to two IPV doses was lower than expected. However, for each of the IPV-OPV sequential schedules, the first OPV dose significantly enhanced seroconversion rates and geometric mean microneutralization antibody titers. Three months after the final dose, 96%-99%, 99%-100%, and 81%-100% of infants had antibodies to poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and subjects with two or more prior OPV doses were significantly less likely than those with none or one prior OPV dose to excrete virus in feces after an OPV challenge. Sequential IPV-OPV immunization is now recommended for routine use in the United States. The optimal schedule consists of two IPV doses followed by two OPV doses.

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