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Virology. 1997 Jun 23;233(1):1-8.

Entry of mouse hepatitis virus into cells by endosomal and nonendosomal pathways.

Author information

1
Department of Neuropharmacology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

Abstract

OBLV60 is an acid-dependent syncytium-forming variant isolated from OBL21 cells persistently infected with the pH-independent mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-4 strain. The fusion activity of OBLV60 can be strictly regulated by controlling pH and thus provides the means to definitively examine the entry of MHV into cells by endosomal and nonendosomal pathways. Shortly after high multiplicity infection, both MHV-4 and OBLV60 were detected by electron microscopy in endosomal vesicles and were recovered from lysates of cells treated with proteinase K to remove extracellular virus. For OBLV60, but not MHV-4, exposure to lysosomotropic compounds early in infection prevented viral penetration and significantly reduced viral yields. These results suggested that both MHV-4 and OBLV60 utilized the endosomal route of entry into cells, but that MHV-4 did not require acidification of endosomal vesicles. Studies on the entry of virus through fusion at the cell surface were performed by briefly exposing surface-bound OBLV60 to a fusion-permissive pH under conditions that prevent endocytic entry. Acid treatment of surface-bound OBLV60 caused a significant increase in the yields of virus produced in cultures of fusion-sensitive Sac- or DBT cells, demonstrating entry of virus by fusion at the cell surface. No measurable increase in virus production was detected with acid treatment of OBLV60 bound to OBL21 cells, suggesting that entry at the cell surface does not occur in these cells, which are resistant to MHV-induced syncytia formation. These results raise interesting questions concerning how mechanisms of MHV entry influence the selection of fusion variants.

PMID:
9201212
DOI:
10.1006/viro.1997.8609
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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