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J Immunol. 1997 Jul 1;159(1):11-4.

The dominant role of bone marrow-derived cells in CTL induction following plasmid DNA immunization at different sites.

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  • 1Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Canada.


Although plasmid DNA immunization provides an effective means of inducing CTL responses to an expressed Ag, the mechanism by which CTL precursors are activated remains to be established. Insights could be gained by identifying the cells responsible for Ag presentation when DNA is introduced into different tissue sites. By immunizing parent into F1 bone marrow chimeric mice with an influenza nucleoprotein-expressing plasmid, we have demonstrated that the key cells in this presentation process for both gene gun-mediated epidermal injection and needle intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA are bone marrow derived. Furthermore, as assessed by intramuscular injection, coexpression of nucleoprotein with the costimulatory molecule B7-2, or the cytokines granulocyte-macrophage CSF and IL-12, did not convert nonhemopoietic cells into APCs. Thus, for two distinctly different modes of DNA immunization, in one case with or without coexpressed immunostimulatory factors, the APCs were consistently found to be of hemopoietic origin.

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