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Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;419:25-33.

ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases and ADP-ribosyltransferases. Partners in ADP-ribosylation cycles.

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Pulmonary-Critical Care Medicine Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a reversible modification of arginine residues in proteins, with NAD:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferases and ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases constituting opposing arms of a putative ADP-ribosylation cycle. The enzymatic components of an ADP-ribosylation cycle have been identified in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. The regulatory significance of the cycle has been best documented in prokaryotes. As shown by Ludden and coworkers, ADP-ribosylation controls the activity of dinitrogenase reductase in the phototropic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. ADP-ribosylation of other amino acids, such as cysteine, has also been demonstrated, lending credence to the hypothesis that this modification is heterogeneous. In eukaryotes, the functional relationship between ADP-ribosyltransferases and ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases is less well documented. The transferase-catalyzed reaction results in sterospecific formation of alpha-ADP-ribosylarginine from beta-NAD; ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases specifically cleave the alpha-anomer, leading to release of ADP-ribose and regeneration of the free guanidino group of arginine. The two reactions can thus be coupled in vitro. Coupling in vivo is dependent on cellular localization. The deduced amino acid sequences of ADP-ribosyltransferases from avian and mammalian tissues have common consensus sequences involved in catalytic activity but, in some instances, enzyme-specific cellular localization signals. The presence of amino- and carboxy-terminal signal sequences is consistent with the glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-anchoring to the cell surface. The muscle and lymphocyte transferases ADP-ribosylate integrins. Some transferases lack the carboxy- terminal signal sequence needed for GPI-anchoring. Most ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase activity is cytosolic, although perhaps some is located at the cell surface. Deduced amino acid sequences of hydrolases from a number of mammalian species are consistent with their cytoplasmic localization. Katada and coworkers have determined, however, that auto-ADP-ribosylated RT6, a GPI-linked protein, is metabolized by a hydrolase-like activity, consistent with the existence of an ADP-ribosylation cycle. ADP-ribosyl RT6 may be internalized, thereby coming in contact with the cytosolic hydrolase; alternatively, a novel form of the hydrolase may be located at the surface. The mechanism of coupling of ADP-ribosyltransferases and hydrolases in eukaryotic ADP-ribosylation cycles has yet to be clarified.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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