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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jun 24;94(13):7053-8.

7-Chloro-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine S,S-dioxide: a partial modulator of AMPA receptor desensitization devoid of neurotoxicity.

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The Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.


In cerebellar granule neurons of neonatal rats micromolar concentrations of 7-chloro-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2, 4-benzothiadiazine S,S-dioxide (IDRA-21) and cyclothiazide, two negative modulators of the spontaneous agonist-dependent rapid desensitization of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-gated ion channels, facilitate AMPA receptor function by increasing the content of free cytosolic Ca2+ as measured by single-cell fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester (Fura-2) Ca2+-dependent fluorescence and intracellular Na+ measured with the sodium-binding bezofuran isophthalate acetoxymethyl ester fluorescence indicator. IDRA-21 increases intracellular Na+ transient with a threshold (5 microM) that is approximately 10 times higher and has an intrinsic activity significantly lower than that of cyclothiazide. By virtue of its low intrinsic activity, IDRA-21 elicits a free cytosolic Ca2+ transient increase that is shorter lasting than that elicited by cyclothiazide even when the drug is left in contact with cultured granule cells for several minutes. Additionally, while dose dependently, 5-25 microM cyclothiazide in the presence of AMPA is highly neurotoxic, IDRA-21 (up to 100 microM) is devoid of neurotoxicity. The neurotoxicity elicited by cyclothiazide persists in the presence of dizocilpine (an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate-selective glutamate receptors) but is blocked by 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitrosulfamoylbenzo[f]quinoxaline (a competitive AMPA receptor antagonist) and the 1-(aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7, 8-methylendioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine (GYKI 52466; a noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist). Since the doses of IDRA-21 that enhance cognitive processes in rats and monkeys are several orders of magnitude lower than those required to elicit marginal neurotoxicity in cultured neurons, it can be surmised that IDRA-21 is a potent cognition-enhancing drug virtually devoid of neurotoxic liability because it acts as a partial negative allosteric modulator of AMPA receptor desensitization.

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