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Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997 Jun;51(6):354-61.

Food patterns associated with intakes of fat, carbohydrate and dietary fibre in a cohort of Danish adults followed for six years.

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Department of Social Medicine and Psycosocial Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.



To examine associations between food consumption patterns, measured by a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the intakes of fat, carbohydrates and fibre over time, and in relation to recommended guidelines.


The same 329 individuals had their diet intake measured by a short FFQ and a thorough diet history interview, first in 1987/88, and again six years later in 1993/94.


The County of Copenhagen, Denmark.


Three hundred and twenty-nine men and women, aged 35-65 y selected randomly from a large population sample.


At both examinations fat energy displayed the strongest positive associations with the intake of animal fats and negative correlations with the vegetables. These food items explained most of the total explained variation in fat intake. In general the associations between food items and intakes of carbohydrates and fibre were similar but inverse, to those found for fat. During the study period median fat energy decreased from 41-38%. A less frequent intake of animal fats over time predicted an increase in fat energy both among men and women, while a more frequent intake of fruit and pasta, and a less frequent intake of cakes was associated with an increase in dietary fibre.


Food items like animal fats, vegetables and certain high starch foods can predict compliance to dietary guidelines for fat and carbohydrates. The study also shows that the food pattern of this Danish cohort has changed in the direction of a more healthy diet during the six years of follow-up.


This study was granted by the Danish Agricultural and Veterinary and Danish Medical Councils and the Danish Health Insurance foundation.

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