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Science. 1997 Jun 20;276(5320):1868-71.

Large porous particles for pulmonary drug delivery.

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 204 Fenske Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA.


A new type of inhalation aerosol, characterized by particles of small mass density and large size, permitted the highly efficient delivery of inhaled therapeutics into the systemic circulation. Particles with mass densities less than 0.4 gram per cubic centimeter and mean diameters exceeding 5 micrometers were inspired deep into the lungs and escaped the lungs' natural clearance mechanisms until the inhaled particles delivered their therapeutic payload. Inhalation of large porous insulin particles resulted in elevated systemic levels of insulin and suppressed systemic glucose levels for 96 hours, whereas small nonporous insulin particles had this effect for only 4 hours. High systemic bioavailability of testosterone was also achieved by inhalation delivery of porous particles with a mean diameter (20 micrometers) approximately 10 times that of conventional inhaled therapeutic particles.

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