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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1997 Apr;36(1):57-61.

Effect of smoking on the prevalence of albuminuria in Japanese men with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

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Second Department of Internal Medicine, Kochi Medical School, Japan.


Smoking is a risk factor for diabetic nephropathy in patients with IDDM and potentially those with NIDDM. We investigated the relationship between renal involvement and cigarette smoking in 148 men with NIDDM. The presence of renal involvement was assessed by determining the overnight urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g, ACR). The patients were divided into three groups, normo-, micro-, and macroalbuminuria, based on the ACR (< 30, 30-300, and 300 < or = mg/g, respectively). The incidence of micro-/macroalbuminuria in 81 smokers was significantly higher than that in 21 ex-smokers (stopped smoking at least 10 years prior to the study) or 40 non-smokers (53.1, 33.3, and 20.0%, respectively). The prevalence of smoking in the groups of patients with normo-, micro-, and macroalbuminuria were 45, 73, and 76%, respectively. The relative risk (odds ratio) for the prevalence of micro-/macroalbuminuria associated with smoking was 4.5 (95% CI, 1.9-11.6, P < 0.001) in smokers and was 2.0 (not significant) in ex-smokers. Our results indicate that stricter counselling about the importance of quitting smoking will be necessary in patients with NIDDM to protect against the development of diabetic nephropathy.

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