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J Urol. 1997 Jul;158(1):131-7.

p53, bcl-2 and retinoblastoma proteins as long-term prognostic markers in localized carcinoma of the prostate.

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1
Department of Urology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The accumulation of p53 and bcl-2 gene products as well as the loss of the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene product have been associated with prostate cancer progression. We assessed whether the levels of immunoreactivity for p53, Rb and bcl-2 are better long-term predictors of disease specific survival than conventional pathological parameters of the primary tumor, such as Gleason score, capsular penetration, seminal vesicle invasion and percent tumor in the specimen, in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A total of 71 patients with clinical stages A1 to B2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent radical prostatectomy after a negative metastatic evaluation. No neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatments were given and causes of death were recorded. Prostatectomy specimens were analyzed to determine the conventional pathological parameters, and p53, Rb and bcl-2 immunohistochemical staining. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done to determine the independent contributions of p53, Rb and bcl-2 in predicting survival.

RESULTS:

On multivariate analysis the independent factors predicting disease specific survival were p53 staining score (p < 0.001) and Rb staining score (p < 0.001). In patients with p53 immunoreactive tumors the 15-year disease specific survival was 38% compared to 87% for those with less immunoreactivity. Analysis of Rb immunoreactivity for 15-year disease specific survival yielded 92 and 66% high and low staining levels, respectively. Best subset analysis revealed that the combination of p53 score and Rb score yielded the best predictive value for disease specific survival.

CONCLUSIONS:

p53 and Rb immunohistochemical staining scores were independent predictors of disease specific survival and were superior to conventional pathological prognostic factors of the primary tumor. These findings lay the groundwork for the prospective study of these markers in patients treated with radical prostatectomy.

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