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Biochemistry. 1997 Jun 3;36(22):6814-8.

Kinetics of nitric oxide dissociation from five- and six-coordinate nitrosyl hemes and heme proteins, including soluble guanylate cyclase.

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Department of Medicine, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA.


Kinetics of NO dissociation were characterized for three five-coordinate systems, heme-NO, HSA-heme-NO (human serum albumin), GC-NO (soluble guanylate cyclase), and for the six-coordinate system, Im-heme-NO. Nitrosyl myoglobin was redetermined for comparison. Previously known, six-coordinate R and T state nitrosyl hemoglobins are also included in the comparison. The data indicate that NO dissociates more than 1000 times faster from five-coordinate model heme than it does from the six-coordinate analog. Such a negative trans-effect between NO and a proximal base is in sharp contrast to carboxy heme derivatives, in which ligand dissociation rates are greatly slowed in when a trans base is present. As a result of opposite trans-effects, six-coordinate carboxy and nitrosyl derivatives have comparable dissociation rates, even though the five-coordinate species are very different. In proteins, five- and six-coordinate forms do not show a large difference in dissociation rates. Part of the reason may be due to different probabilities for geminate recombination in the different proteins, but this cannot explain all the facts. There must also be influences of the protein structure on bond-breaking rate constants themselves. With the exception of hemoglobin in the T state, nitrosyl guanylate cyclase shows the highest NO dissociation rate constant, k(obs) = 6 x 10(-4) s(-1). This would yield a half-life of about 2 min at 37 degrees C for dissociation of NO from GC-NO, a number that has implications for the mechanism of regulation of the activity of this key heme enzyme.

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