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Drug Alcohol Depend. 1997 Apr 14;45(1-2):31-7.

Effects of past history of major depression on smoking characteristics, monoamine oxidase-A and -B activities and withdrawal symptoms in dependent smokers.

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1
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Abstract

Past history of major depression is more common in smokers than in non-smokers. We have shown in a previous study that lifetime prevalence of major depression is higher in dependent smokers and they have lower monoamine oxidase-A and -B activities than non-smokers. Because several studies have found an association between MAO-B activity and depression we analysed data of these smokers to assess whether past history of major depression is associated with reduced monoamine oxidase activities (A and B) or not. Further, we tried to characterize smokers with past history of major depression and its effect on withdrawal symptoms. The data of 88 dependent smokers (Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire score > or = 6 and smoking > or = 20 cigarettes/day) who participated in a smoking cessation study were analysed. Smokers with past history of major depression but without current illness did not differ in demographic and smoking characteristics from smokers without past history of major depression. Smokers with past history of major depression were mainly women and had lower body mass index. Adjusted for gender and body mass index dependent smokers with or without past history of depression had similar MAO-A and MAO-B activities but smokers with past history of major depression had significantly lower resting plasma norepinephrine levels. Smokers with past history of depression had not significantly higher ratings for depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scales) and anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Scales) and smoking cessation did not exacerbate these ratings (assessed up to 3 months) and none had depressive episode during the postcessation period up to one year. Past history of depression was associated with higher scores on 'expressed sadness' and 'depressive mood'. Abstinent smokers with past history of depression had significantly higher ratings in one of the seven ratings of a 6 months period for craving (day 28), anxiety (day 7) and total withdrawal symptom score (day 7) when compared to those who had no past history of major depression. It is concluded that (i) past history of major depression is more frequent in female smokers; (ii) smokers with past history of depression may have more intense withdrawal symptoms (craving and anxiety) at some time after cessation: and (iii) past history of depression does not affect monoamine oxidase activities, therefore, reduced monoamine oxidase activities found in previous studies are possibly characteristic features of smoking.

PMID:
9179504
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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