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Acta Trop. 1997 Jun 24;66(1):27-33.

Schistosoma haematobium induced lesions in the female genital tract in a village in Madagascar.

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Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar.


Female genital schistosomiasis, FGS, was investigated in a gynaecological study as part of an overall community based morbidity survey, including parasitological and ultrasonographical examination, of a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area in Madagascar. Women (103), of childbearing age (15-49 years), were included for a gynaecological examination and visible lesions of vagina and cervix were biopsied in order to determine the origin of the lesion. Furthermore all women were screened for the presence of schistosome ova using PAP smears from the vagina and the endo/exo cervix. In total 15 women showed schistosome ova in the vagina and/or cervix (median age 24 years and range 15-36 years). Of 36 women with cervical abnormalities, 12 eggs were detected by cervical biopsy (33%). In addition, two of the 12 presented vaginal induration, which contained eggs. Six women had eggs in their PAP smears of which three were egg negative by cervical biopsy. The prevalence of positive S. haematobium egg excretion in the urine among the 103 women was 69% and the geometric mean egg count of positive individuals was 51 eggs/10 ml of urine. Five of the 15 women with confirmed FGS had < or = 1 egg/10 ml of urine. Bladder lesions and congestive changes in the kidneys were demonstrated by ultrasonographic examination in 33 and 9% of the 103 women, respectively. None of the 15 women with confirmed FGS had renal congestion. Our study demonstrates that FGS is a common manifestation of the infection with S. haematobium, even in lightly infected individuals.

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