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Am J Cardiol. 1997 May 15;79(10):1426-30.

Elevated soluble CD14 receptors and altered cytokines in chronic heart failure.

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Department of Cardiac Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom.


We hypothesized that in patients with chronic heart failure mesenteric venous congestion leads to increased bowel permeability, bacterial translocation, and thereby endotoxin release; the increased endotoxin challenge then causes immune activation with increased soluble CD14 levels and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production. Patients with high soluble CD14 levels (indicative of endotoxin-cell interaction) have markedly increased plasma levels of TNF-alpha, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1, supporting this hypothesis.

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