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Semin Orthod. 1996 Jun;2(2):114-37.

Three-dimensional diagnosis and management of Class II malocclusion in the mixed dentition.

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Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-1078, USA.


Class II malocclusion is a commonly observed problem, occurring in about one third of the United States population. The numerous treatment approaches that have been advocated to treat this malocclusion presumably produce differing treatment effects within the skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue components of the face. In the first section of this article, the three-dimensional components of Class II malocclusion are described, with transverse maxillary discrepancy, mandibular skeletal retrusion, and increased lower anterior facial height observed as common findings in a mixed dentition sample of Class II subjects. Second, the literature concerning two seemingly diverse treatment methods (extraoral traction and functional jaw orthopedics) is reviewed in detail. Last, cephalometric data are presented from a retrospective clinical study and is used to evaluate the treatment effects produced by cervical traction and the FR-2 appliance of Fränkel in comparison with an untreated sample of mixed dentition Class II patients. The results of this study indicated that although both skeletal and dentoalveolar components of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion were altered in the Class I direction by either a facebow or a Fränkel appliance, these two appliance systems accomplished the correction in dramatically differing ways. Cervical traction affected the skeletal and dentoalveolar components of the maxilla and mandible, whereas the FR-2 appliance had less of an effect on maxillary and dentoalveolar components and a greater effect on mandibular length. Thus, these two treatment modalities produce decidedly different treatment effects in patients with Class II malocclusions.

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