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J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1996;26:1-28.

New agents for cancer chemoprevention.

Author information

1
Chemoprevention Branch, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Abstract

Clinical chemoprevention trials of more than 30 agents and agent combinations are now in progress or being planned. The most advanced agents are well known and are in large Phase III chemoprevention intervention trials or epidemiological studies. These drugs include several retinoids [e.g., retinol, retinyl palmitate, all-trans-retinoic acid, and 13-cis-retinoic acid], calcium, Beta carotene, vitamin E, tamoxifen, and finasteride. Other newer agents are currently being evaluated in or being considered for Phase II and early Phase III chemoprevention trials. Prominent in this group are all-trans-N-(4-hydroxy phenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) (alone and in combination with tamoxifen), 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (aspirin, piroxicam, sulindac), oltipraz, and dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA). A third group is new agents showing chemopreventive activity in animal models, epidemiological studies, or in pilot clinical intervention studies. They are now in preclinical toxicology testing or Phase I safety and pharmacokinetics trials preparatory to chemoprevention efficacy trials. These agents include S-allyl-l-cysteine, curcumin, DHEA analog 8354 (fluasterone), genistein, ibuprofen, indole-3-carbinol, perillyl alcohol, phenethyl isothiocyanate, 9-cis-retinoic acid, sulindac sulfone, tea extracts, ursodiol, vitamin D analogs, and p-xylyl selenocyanate. A new generation of agents and agent combinations will soon enter clinical chemoprevention studies based primarily on promising chemopreventive activity in animal models and in mechanistic studies. Among these agents are more efficacious analogs of known chemopreventive drugs including novel carotenoids (e.g., alpha-carotene and lutein). Also included are safer analogs which retain the chemopreventive efficacy of the parent drug such as vitamin D3 analogs. Other agents of high interest are aromatase inhibitors (e.g., (+)-vorozole), and protease inhibitors (e.g., Bowman-Birk soybean trypsin inhibitor). Combinations are also being considered, such as vitamin E with l-selenomethionine. Analysis of signal transduction pathways is beginning to yield classes of potentially active and selective chemopreventive drugs. Examples are ras isoprenylation and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

PMID:
9154166
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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