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AIDS. 1997 Mar;11(3):325-32.

Vitamin A deficiency and maternal-infant transmissions of HIV in two metropolitan areas in the United States.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10467, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether vitamin A deficiency is associated with maternal-infant HIV transmission among HIV-infected pregnant women in two United States cities.

METHODS:

Third trimester serum vitamin A levels were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography in 133 HIV-infected women who delivered livebirths during May 1986 to May 1994 and whose infants had known HIV infection status.

RESULTS:

Sixteen per cent (seven out of 44) of the transmitting mothers and 6% (five out of 89) of the non-transmitting mothers had severe vitamin A deficiency (< 0.70 mumol/l; P = 0.05). Maternal-infant transmission was also associated with prematurity < 37 weeks gestation (P = 0.02), and Cesarean section delivery (P = 0.04), CD4 percentage (P = 0.03) and marginally associated with duration of membrane rupture of > or = 4 h (P = 0.06) by univariate analysis. In a multivariate logistic regression model, severe vitamin A deficiency [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 5.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.20-21.24], Cesarean section delivery (AOR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.10-12.87), and prematurity (AOR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.22-4.13) were associated with transmission after adjusting for CD4+ percentage, and duration of membrane rupture.

CONCLUSION:

Increased risk of maternal-infant transmission was associated with severe vitamin A deficiency among non-breastfeeding women in these cohorts from the United States.

PMID:
9147424
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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