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AIDS. 1997 Mar;11(3):319-24.

Clinical features and outcomes of HIV-related cytomegalovirus pneumonia.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, New York 10003, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe the characteristics and outcomes of HIV-infected patients with biopsy-proven cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia.

DESIGN:

Retrospective study.

SETTING:

A 900-bed acute facility in New York City.

PATIENTS:

Eighteen HIV-infected patients with pathologically confirmed CMV inclusions in lung tissue without other pathogens and 36 control patients with biopsy-proven Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) selected for comparisons by computer-generated random sequential numbers.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological findings, and in-hospital mortality.

RESULTS:

Eighteen HIV-infected patients were found to have CMV lung infection alone. Pathologic findings were pneumonitis (n = 11); pneumonitis and pulmonary vasculitis (n = 1); and CMV inclusions alone (n = 6). All presented with respiratory symptoms (cough or dyspnea), 89% had fever, 83% had radiological abnormalities, and 56% had severe hypoxemia. The pulmonary presentation was similar except for higher lactate dehydrogenase (median, 449 versus 329 IU/l; P = 0.03) and presence of pleural effusions (33 versus 0%; P = 0.001) in CMV patients. Multivariate analysis showed that CD4 counts < or = 12 x 10(6)/l (odds ratio; 9.2; P = 0.029) and extrapulmonary CMV (odds ratio, 20.4; P = 0.039) were independently associated with CMV pneumonia. Seventeen patients received specific anti-CMV therapy for a mean of 22 +/- 13 days. In-hospital mortality was higher in patients with CMV pneumonia (odds ratio, 11.9; P = 0.002). The median time from admission to death was 31 days.

CONCLUSIONS:

CMV lung infection was seen in severely immunosuppressed HIV-positive patients and associated with clinical pneumonitis with high early mortality. Although the clinical features resemble PCP, the presence of extrapulmonary CMV disease should suggest the diagnosis of CMV pneumonia.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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