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Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Apr;24(4):684-703.

Human leishmaniasis: clinical, diagnostic, and chemotherapeutic developments in the last 10 years.

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Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C. 20307-5100, USA.


The current interest in leishmaniasis stems from the importance of this disease with respect to travel medicine, veterans of Operation Desert Storm, humanitarian concerns, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Herein, I review aspects of leishmaniasis that are of practical value to practitioners, including presentation, diagnosis, and chemotherapy; I will emphasize advances in chemotherapy over the last 10 years. Amphotericin B and its new lipid formulations are now competitive with pentavalent antimony as primary therapy for visceral leishmaniasis. Pentamidine, paromomycin, and adjunctive therapy with interferon-gamma are secondary regimens for the treatment of this condition. High-dose long-term regimens of antimony have been shown to be highly effective for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Preliminary evidence of efficacy has been observed with short courses of pentamidine for the treatment of Leishmania braziliensis complex disease and topical paromomycin/methylbenzethonium chloride for the treatment of Leishmania major disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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