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Protein Sci. 1997 May;6(5):1101-9.

Hydrogen exchange: the modern legacy of Linderstrøm-Lang.

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Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104-6059, USA.


This discussion, prepared for the Protein Society's symposium honoring the 100th anniversary of Kaj Linderstrøm-Lang, shows how hydrogen exchange approaches initially conceived and implemented by Lang and his colleagues some 50 years ago are contributing to current progress in structural biology. Examples are chosen from the active protein folding field. Hydrogen exchange methods now make it possible to define the structure of protein folding intermediates in various contexts: as tenuous molten globule forms at equilibrium under destabilizing conditions, in kinetic intermediates that exist for less than one second, and as infinitesimally populated excited state forms under native conditions. More generally, similar methods now find broad application in studies of protein structure, energetics, and interactions. This article considers the rise of these capabilities from their inception at the Carlsberg Labs to their contemporary role as a significant tool of modern structural biology.

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