Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
AIDS. 1997 May;11(6):801-7.

HIV-associated adult mortality in a rural Tanzanian population.

Author information

1
African Medical and Research Foundation, Mwanza, Tanzania.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To measure HIV-associated adult mortality in a rural population in Tanzania. To record the signs and symptoms associated with deaths of HIV-positive adults.

DESIGN:

Prospective cohort study conducted in the context of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a sexually transmitted disease treatment programme.

METHODS:

A cohort consisting of a random sample of 12501 adults aged 15-54 years was recruited from 12 rural communities in Mwanza region, Tanzania in 1991/1992. Baseline HIV prevalence was 4.0%. The cohort was followed up after 2 years to record mortality according to baseline HIV status. A verbal autopsy questionnaire was administered for each of the deaths reported.

RESULTS:

A total of 196 deaths were recorded, of which 73 (37%) occurred in HIV-positive individuals. Mortality rates per 1000 person-years were 6.0 in HIV-negatives and 93.5 in HIV-positives. The age-adjusted mortality rate ratio was 15.68 (95% confidence interval, 11.18-21.03). The proportion of adult deaths attributed to HIV infection was 35% overall and 53% in those aged 20-29 years. Verbal autopsies showed that HIV-positive deaths were significantly associated with fever, rash, weight loss, anaemia, cough, chest pain, abdominal pain and headache, but the specificity of individual symptoms was low. The World Health Organization clinical case definition of AIDS was satisfied for only 13 deaths, of which seven were HIV-positive at baseline. Only seven respondents reported that the death was associated with HIV or AIDS.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study confirms the strong association of HIV infection and mortality in rural Africa, with an annual death rate in adult seropositives of over 9%. In this rural population with a relatively low HIV prevalence of 4%, HIV has increased overall adult mortality by more than 50%. Signs and symptoms associated with HIV deaths were non-specific, and the population seemed largely unaware of the contribution of HIV to mortality, an important obstacle to prevention efforts.

PIP:

A cohort of 12,501 adults aged 15-54 years was randomly selected from 12 rural communities in Mwanza region, Tanzania, in 1991-92 and followed for 2 years to assess the contribution of HIV/AIDS to mortality in the region. HIV seroprevalence in the sample was 4% at baseline. 73 of the 196 deaths recorded over the period occurred among HIV-positive individuals. Mortality rates per 1000 person-years were 6.0 among the HIV-seronegative and 93.5 among the HIV-seropositive. The age-adjusted mortality rate ratio was 15.68 overall. 35% of overall mortality was attributed to HIV infection, 53% among those age 20-29 years. Verbal autopsies administered for each death reported showed that HIV-positive deaths were significantly associated with fever, rash, weight loss, anemia, cough, chest pain, abdominal pain, and headache. The specificity of individual symptoms, however, was low. The World Health Organization clinical case definition of AIDS was satisfied for only 13 deaths, of which seven were HIV-positive at baseline. HIV/AIDS was mentioned during the verbal autopsy interview by only seven respondents as being associated with a given death.

PMID:
9143613
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wolters Kluwer
    Loading ...
    Support Center