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Am J Epidemiol. 1997 May 1;145(9):786-93.

Risk factors for hip fracture in men. Hip Fracture Study Group.

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Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104-6021, USA.


To identify risk factors for hip fracture in men, the authors conducted a case-control study involving 20 hospitals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and 14 hospitals in Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of northern California. The 356 enrolled men had been admitted with a radiologically confirmed first hip fracture. The 402 control men either were from the Philadelphia area or were members of Kaiser Permanente and were frequency matched to the cases by age and ZIP code or telephone exchange. Information on potential risk factors was obtained through personal interviews. Men in the lowest quintile of body mass had a greatly increased risk of hip fracture compared with men in the heaviest quintile (odds ratio (OR) 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-6.4). Premorbid lower limb dysfunction was associated with increased risks for hip fracture (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.1-5.4). Increased risks were also observed with the use of cimetidine (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.6) and psychotropic drugs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.3). Smoking cigarettes or a pipe increased the risk of hip fracture, and this association was independent of body mass. Finally, previous physical activity was markedly protective. Factors thought to affect bone density as well as factors identified as risk factors for falls appear to be important determinants of the risk of hip fracture in men. Physical activity may be a particularly promising preventive measure for men. Additional studies of the use of cimetidine on osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are indicated.

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