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Magnes Res. 1996 Oct;9(3):173-81.

Epidemiological study of magnesium status and risk of hypertension in a rural population of north India.

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Heart Research Laboratory, Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Moradabad, India.


This cross-sectional survey was conducted in two randomly selected villages in Moradabad in North India to demonstrate the association of magnesium status with hypertension in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in a rural population. There were 1769 subjects (894 males, 875 females) between 25 and 64 years of age, randomly selected and divided into social classes 1-4 depending upon various sociological attributes. The survey methods were a validated questionnaire, blood pressure measurements by mercury manometer, and blood analysis for serum magnesium. Social class 1 and 2 were associated with a greater prevalence of hypertension. The overall prevalence of hypertension diagnosed by JNC-V criteria (> 140/90 mm Hg) was 17.7 per cent (n = 313) and the prevalence was comparable in both sexes and increased with age. Among social class 1 and 2 subjects, there was a higher prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyle, a lower intake of dietary magnesium, and a lower serum magnesium compared to social class 3. Logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age showed that SES has a positive relation with hypertension (odds ratio 1.08 men, 1.07 women, P < 0.05), body mass index (odds ratio 1.14 men, 1.13 women, P < 0.01), and sedentary lifestyle (odds ratio 1.38 men, 1.32 women, P < 0.05) in both sexes, and with salt intake in women (odds ratio 1.28, P < 0.05). The odds ratio indicated that a higher intake of magnesium (odds ratio 1.14 men, 1.17 women, P < 0.05) and a higher serum magnesium (odds ratio 1.12 men, 1.15 women, P < 0.05) were associated with a lower risk of hypertension. The findings suggest that social class 1 and 2 subjects in some rural populations of India have a higher prevalence of hypertension and dietary intake of magnesium, and serum magnesium levels were inversely associated with the risk of hypertension.

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