Send to

Choose Destination
Ultrasound Med Biol. 1997;23(2):307-13.

Hemolysis in vivo from exposure to pulsed ultrasound.

Author information

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA.


Ultrasonically induced hemolysis in vivo when a commercial ultrasound contrast agent, Albunex, was present in the blood. Murine hearts were exposed for 5 min at either 1.15 or 2.35 MHz with a pulse length of 10 microseconds and pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz. During the exposure period, four boluses of Albunex were injected into a tail vein for a total of approximately 0.1 mL of Albunex. Following exposure, blood was collected by heart puncture and centrifuged, and the plasma was analyzed for hemoglobin concentration. With Albunex present in the blood, the threshold for hemolysis at 1.15 MHz was 3.0 +/- 0.8 MPa (mean +/- SD) peak positive pressure (approximately 1.9 MPa negative pressure, approximately 180 W cm-2 pulse average intensity). For the highest exposure levels (10 MPa peak positive pressure at the surface of the animal), the mean value for hemolysis was approximately 4% at 1.15 MHz and 0.46% at 2.35 MHz, i.e., the threshold at 2.35 MHz is > 10 MPa peak positive pressure. In contrast, hemolysis in control mice receiving saline injections at 10 MPa or sham-exposed (0 MPa) mice receiving Albunex was approximately 0.4%.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center