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Science. 1997 May 9;276(5314):917-22.

Thermodynamics and kinetics of a Brownian motor.

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Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, MC6035, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.


Nonequilibrium fluctuations, whether generated externally or by a chemical reaction far from equilibrium, can bias the Brownian motion of a particle in an anisotropic medium without thermal gradients, a net force such as gravity, or a macroscopic electric field. Fluctuation-driven transport is one mechanism by which chemical energy can directly drive the motion of particles and macromolecules and may find application in a wide variety of fields, including particle separation and the design of molecular motors and pumps.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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