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J Psychosom Res. 1997 Mar;42(3):225-34.

Androgenic--anabolic steroids and body dysmorphia in young men.

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Department of Clinical Psychology, Stobhill Trust Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland.


There has recently been increasing attention focused on the use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Some research has suggested that a disturbance in body image in males leads to AAS use. At present, the available literature is sparse and there is little/no discussion on the causal factors for their use. This review gives a historical account of the development and the changing patterns of AAS use. Both the physical and psychological side-effects are presented. The available evidence and theories for external/social and internal, psychological, and developmental influences are discussed in relation to AAS use. The current trends for the treatment of AAS abusers are also presented. Recommendations regarding further research are made in the conclusions.

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